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Natural wastewater treatment systems Natural wastewater treatment systems Natural technologies of wastewater treatment use modified natural self-treatment processes that take place in the ground soil and water environment. Systems are easy to install, owner can engage in the installation, thus reducing investment costs Natural wastewater treatment systems

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Natural wastewater treatment systems

Natural technologies of wastewater treatment use modified natural self-treatment processes that take place in the ground soil and water environment.

Wastewater with high organic content and high load of fats, oils, oil derivatives without pre-treatment are unsuitable for natural wastewater treatment systems.

 

Natural treatment methods are used either as only WWT solutions for dwelling, hotels, recreational facilities, restaurants and summer camps, if it is allowed by national legislation, or for polishing after septic tank or packaged WWT plant discharge or for infiltration of treated wastewater.

Constructed Wetlands

Constructed treatment wetlands represent a biological treatment stage – secondary and/or tertiary. It is based on slow filtration of pre-treated wastewater. It may also be used for tertiary treatment of effluent from WWT plants with activated sludge process.

 

Constructed wetlands are constructed filtration systems planted with vegetation (most often reed) with defined filter material and direction of wastewater flow. The basic principle of this method for sewage treatment is the flow of wastewater through the filtration system, which is planted with vegetation. There are three types of constructed wetlands used – sub-surface flow constructed wetland, surface flow constructed wetland, hybrid system – a combination of subsurface flow and surface flow systems.

Natural wastewater treatment systems
Sub-surface flow constructed wetland.

Infiltration field

Effluent after its treatment in the pre-fabricated WWT plant or septic tank trickles out of the pipes, through the gravel layer, and into the soil where additional treatment occurs. The filtering, which is characterised with suction velocity, is strongly dependant on the type of soil. Therefore, the area of infiltration field should be designed individually in the each particular case.

 

Since the sewage treatment result is not easy to control, the infiltration field is not used for wastewater treatment, but only for treated wastewater discharge after pre-fabricated WWT plants or septic tanks. Infiltration fields are not suitable for the regions with high level of groundwater.

Natural wastewater treatment systems

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

The natural character of the sewage facility provide better possibilities to integrate in landscape. 

WWT systems require more space than packaged WWT plants.

Investment costs are comparable with packaged WWT, but operational and maintenance costs are low.Low efficiency of ammonia nitrogen removal.
Simple maintenance due to simple technology.Not in all cases can be used as only WWT solutions
The possibility of short-term and long-term shutdown.Longer time for technical project preparation, because the dimensions of plant have to be calculated on the bases of hydraulic and pollution loads.
Possibilities to operate with enlarged hydraulic loads.
Relatively rapid incorporation of the treatment process and achievement of the performance efficiency quality target in a short period of time after the start of operation.Since most of the technologies are based on wastewater distribution though rather thin pipes, proper mechanical pre-treatment should be provided.
Treatment of wastewater with low concentrations of organic matter that cannot be treated by activated sludge processes.
High efficiency of removal for organic matter, suspended solids and phosphorus.
Systems are easy to install, owner can engage in the installation, thus reducing investment costs.
Natural wastewater treatment systems
Natural wastewater treatment systems

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Natural wastewater treatment systems

Natural wastewater treatment systems

Wastewater with high organic content and high load of fats, oils, oil derivatives without pre-treatment are unsuitable for natural wastewater treatment systems Natural treatment methods are used either as only WWT solutions for dwelling, hotels, recreational facilities, restaurants and summer camps, if it is allowed by national legislation, or for polishing after septic tank or packaged WWT plant discharge or for infiltration of treated wastewater Natural technologies of wastewater treatment use modified natural self-treatment processes that take place in the ground soil and water environment.

Natural wastewater treatment systems

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